3.2 R version

It is important to keep your R installation and packages up-to-date. This section explains how.

3.2.1 Installing R

The method of installing R varies for Windows, Linux and Mac.

On Windows, a single .exe file (hosted at cran.r-project.org/bin/windows/base/) will install the base R package.

On a Mac, the latest version should be installed by downloading the .pkg files hosted at cran.r-project.org/bin/macosx/.

On Debian-based systems adding the CRAN repository in the format. To add the RStudio mirror for Ubuntu 14.04 (codenamed Trusty), for example, add the following line to /etc/apt/sources.list:

echo 'deb https://cran.rstudio.com/bin/linux/ubuntu trusty`

In the above code cran.rstudio.com is the mirror and trusty is the Ubuntu version. Then r-base and other r- packages can be installed. R also works on FreeBSD and other Unix-based systems.2

Once R is installed it should be kept up-to-date.

3.2.2 Updating R

R is a mature and stable language so well-written code in base R should work on most versions. However, it is important to keep your R version relatively up-to-date, because:

  • Bug fixes are introduced in each version, making errors less likely;
  • Performance enhancements are made from one version to the next, meaning your code may run faster in later versions;
  • Many R packages only work on recent versions on R.

Release notes with details on each of these issues are hosted at cran.r-project.org/src/base/NEWS. R release versions have 3 components corresponding to major.minor.patch changes. Generally 2 or 3 patches are released before the next minor increment. R 3.2, for example, has consisted of 3 versions: 3.2.0, 3.2.1 and 3.2.2.

  • On Ubuntu-based systems, new versions of R should be automatically detected through the software management system, and can be installed with apt-get upgrade.
  • On Mac, the latest version should be installed by the user from the .pkg files mentioned above.
  • On Windows installr package makes updating easy:

    # check and install the latest R version

For information about changes to expect in the next version, you can subscribe to the R’s NEWS RSS feed: developer.r-project.org/blosxom.cgi/R-devel/NEWS/index.rss. It’s a good way of keeping up to date.

3.2.3 Installing R packages

Large projects may need several packages to be installed. In this case, the required packages can be installed at once. Using the example of packages for handling spatial data, this can be done quickly and concisely with the following code:

pkgs = c("raster", "leaflet", "rgeos") # package names

In the above code all the required packages are installed with two not three lines, reducing typing. Note that we can now re-use the pkgs object to load them all:

inst = lapply(pkgs, library, character.only = TRUE) # load them

In the above code library(pkg[i]) is executed for every package stored in the text string vector. We use library here instead of require because the former produces an error if the package is not available.

Loading all packages at the beginning of a script is good practice as it ensures all dependencies have been installed before time is spent executing code. Storing package names in a character vector object such as pkgs is also useful because it allows us to refer back to them again and again. To provide another example, we can update only the packages named in pkgs with the following command:

update.packages(oldPkgs = pkgs)

3.2.4 Installing R packages with dependencies

Some packages have external dependencies (i.e. they call libraries outside R). On Unix-like systems, these are best installed onto the operating system, bypassing install.packages. This will ensure the necessary dependencies are installed and setup correctly alongside the R package. On Debian-based distributions such as Ubuntu, for example, packages with names starting with r-cran- can be search for and installed as follows (see cran.r-project.org/bin/linux/ubuntu/ for a list of these):

apt-cache search r-cran- # search for available cran Debian packages
sudo apt-get-install r-cran-rgdal # install the rgdal package (with dependencies)

On Windows the installr package helps manage and update R packages with system-level dependencies. For example the Rtools package for compiling C/C++ code on Window can be installed with the following command:


3.2.5 Updating R packages

An efficient R set-up will contain up-to-date packages. This can be done for all packages with:

update.packages() # update installed CRAN packages

The default for this function is for the ask argument to be set to TRUE, giving control over what is downloaded onto your system.3 This is a good thing: updating dozens of large packages can consume a large proportion of available system resources and much time!

An even more interactive method for updating packages in R is provided by RStudio via Tools > Check for Package Updates. Many such time saving tricks are enabled by RStudio, as described in a subsequent section. Next (after the exercises) we take a look at how to configure R using start-up files.

3.2.6 Exercises

  1. What version of R are you using? Is it the most up-to-date?
  2. Do any of your packages need updating?